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Mango Cultivars/Varieties

Apart from numerous seedling varieties, more than a thousand vegetatively propagated mango cultivars have been reported. Most of these have originated as chance seedlings selected earlier and further maintained asexually. Majority of these cultivars is of Indian origin and representation from other parts of the world is limited in number.
In India, about 30 cultivars are being grown commercially. Majority of them have narrow adaptability and show ecogeographical preferences for growth and yield (Yadav and Rajan, 1993). However the situation has been gradually changing in different regions of India. Traditional cultivars, specific to particular regions are being replaced by those assuring higher returns. (Click here for INDIAN CULTIVARS).

Important mango cultivars in major producing countries.

Country

Cultivars

Australia

'Kensington Pride', 'Banana', 'Earlygold', 'Glenn', 'Haden', 'Irwin', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Zill'

Bangladesh

'Aswina', 'Fazli', 'Gopal Bhog', 'Himsagar','Khirsapati', 'Langra', 'Kishan Bhog', 'Kohinoor', 'Kua Pahari', 'Mohan Bhog'

Brazil 

'Bourbon', 'Carlota', 'Coracao', 'Espada', 'Itamaraca', 'Maco', 'Magoada', 'Rosa', 'Tommy Atkins'

China

'Baiyu', 'Guixiang', 'Huangpi', 'Huangyu', 'Macheco', 'Sannian', 'Yuexi No. 1'

Costa Rica 

'Haden', 'Irwin', 'Keitt', 'Mora', 'Tommy Atkins'

Ecuador 

'Haden', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'

Egypt 

'Alphonso', 'Bullock's Heart', 'Hindi Be Sennara', 'Langra', 'Mabrouka', 'Pairie', 'Taimour', 'Zebda'

Guatemala 

'Haden', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'

Haiti 

'Francine', 'Madame Francis'

India

'Alphonso', 'Banganapalli', 'Bombay', 'Bombay Green', 'Chausa', 'Dashehari', 'Fazli', 'Fernandian', 'Himsagar', 'Kesar', 'Kishen Bhog', 'Langra', 'Mallika', 'Mankurad, 'Mulgoa', 'Neelum', 'Pairi', 'Samar Behisht Chausa’, 'Suvarnarekha', 'Totapuri', 'Vanraj', 'Zardalu', 'Amrapali', 'Bangalora', 'Gulabkhas'

Indonesia

'Arumanis', 'Dodol', 'Gedong', 'Golek', 'Madu', 'Manalagi', 'Cengkir', 'Wangi'

Israel

'Haden','Tommy Atkins','Keitt', 'Maya', 'Nimrod', 'Kent', 'Palmer'

Kenya 

'Boubo','Ngowe','Batawi'

Malaysia

'Arumanis', 'Kuala Selangor 2', 'Golek', 'Apple Rumani', 'Malgoa', 'Apple Mango', 'Maha-65', 'Tok Boon'

Mali 

'Amelie','Kent'

Mexico 

'Haden', 'Irwin', 'Kent', 'Manila', 'Palmer', 'Sensation', 'Tommy Atkins', 'Van Dyke'

Myanmar

'Aug Din', 'Ma Chit Su', 'Sein Ta Lone', 'Shwe Hin Tha'

Pakistan

'Anwar Ratol', 'Baganapalli', 'Chausa', 'Dashehari', 'Gulab Khas', 'Langra', 'Siroli', 'Sindhri', 'Suvarnarekha', 'Zafran'

Peru 

'Haden', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'

Philippines

'Carabao', 'Manila Super', 'Pico', 'Binoboy', 'Carabao', 'Dudul', 'Pahutan', 'Senora'

Singapore

'Apple Mango', 'Arumanis', 'Golek', 'Kaem Yao', 'Mangga Dadol'

South Africa 

'Fascell', 'Haden', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Sensation', 'Tommy Atkins', 'Zill,

Sri Lanka

'Karutha Colomban, Willard, Vellai Colomban, Petti amba, Malwana amba, Parrot Mango and Peterpasand, Dapara, Hingurakgoda

Thailand

'Nam Doc Mai', 'Ngar Charn', 'Okrong', 'Rad', 'Choke Anand', 'Kao Keaw', 'Keow Savoey', 'Pimsenmum'

USA 

'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Tommy Atkins'

Venezuela 

'Haden' 'Keitt' 'Kent' 'Tommy Atkins

Vietnam

‘Combodiana’

Indian Varieties

There are nearly 1000 mango varieties in India.  However, only about 20 varieties are grown commercially.  Most of the Indian mango varieties have specific ecogeographical requirements for optimum growth and fruiting. 

Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Fazri in north India; Banganapalli, Totapuri, Neelum, Pairi, Suvarnarekha, Mulgoa, Kalapadi and Rumani in south India; Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Fernandin’ and ‘Vanraj’ in western India and ‘Langra’, ‘Fazri; ‘Chausa’, ‘Zardalu’, ‘Himsagar’ and ‘Malda’ in eastern India are grown commercially.  Brief characteristics of these varieties are given below :

Commercial Varieties

Characteristics of important commercial mango varieties are as under :

  1. Alphonso : This is the leading commercial variety of Maharashtra state and one of the choicest varieties of the country. This variety is known by different names in different regions, viz. Badami, Gundu, Khader, Appas, Happus and Kagdi Happus. The fruit of this variety is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and orange yellow in colour. The fruit quality is excellent and keeping quality is good. It has been found good for canning purpose. It is mainly exported as fresh fruit to other countries. It is a mid season variety.
  2. Bangalora : It is a commercial variety of south India. The common synonyms of this variety are Totapuri, Kallamai, Thevadiyamuthi, Collector, Sundersha, Burmodilla, Killi Mukku and Gilli Mukku. The fruit size is medium to large, its shape is oblong with necked base and colour is golden yellow. Fruit quality is poor but keeping quality is very good. It is widely used for processing. It is a mid season variety.
  3. Banganapalli : It is a commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It is also known as Chapta, Safeda, Baneshan and Chapai. Fruit is large in size and obliquely oval in shape. The colour of the fruit is golden yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety and is good for canning. 4. Bombai : It is a commercial variety from Bihar state. It is also known as Malda in West Bengal and Bihar. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate oblique and colour is yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is an early season variety.
  4. Bombay Green : It is commonly grown in north India due to its early fruiting quality. It is also called Malda in northern India. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate oblong and fruit colour is spinach green. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is medium. It is a very early season variety.
  5. Dashehari : This variety derives its name from the village Dashehari near Lucknow. It is a leading commercial variety of north India and one of the best varieties of our country. The fruit size is small to medium, shape is oblong oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality is excellent and keeping quality is good. It is a mid season variety and is mainly used for table purpose.
  6. Fajri : This variety is commonly grown in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. Fruit is very large, obliquely oval in shape. Fruit colour is light chrome. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. This is a late season variety.
  7. Fernandin : This is one of the oldest varieties of Bombay. Some people think that this variety originated in Goa. Fruit size is medium to large, fruit shape is oval to obliquely oval and fruit colour is yellow with a blush of red on shoulders. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is a late season variety mostly used for table purpose.
  8. Himsagar : This variety is indigenous to Bengal. This is one of the choicest varieties of Bengal and has gained extensive popularity. Fruit is of medium size, ovate to ovate oblique in shape. Fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is an early season variety.
  9. Kesar :   This is a leading variety of Gujarat with a red blush on the shoulders. Fruit size is medium, shape oblong and keeping quality is good. It is an early season variety.
  10. Kishen Bhog : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. Fruit size is medium, fruit shape oval oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
  11. Langra : This variety is indigenous to Varanasi area of Uttar Pradesh. It is extensively grown in northern India. Fruit is of medium size, ovate shape and lettuce green colour. Fruit quality is good but keeping quality is medium. It is a mid season variety.
  12. Mankurad : This variety is of commercial importance in Goa and in the neighbouring Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The variety develops black spots on the skin in rainy season. Fruit is medium in size, ovate in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good but keeping quality is poor. It is a mid season variety.
  13. Mulgoa : This is a commercial variety of south India. It is quite popular among the lovers of mango owing to high quality of its fruit. Fruit is large in size, roundish oblique in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a late season variety.
  14. Neelum : This is a commercial variety indigenous to Tamil Nadu. It is an ideal variety for transporting to distant places owing to its high keeping quality. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and saffron yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is very good. It is a late season variety.
  15. Samarbehisht Chausa : This variety originated as a chance seedling in the orchard of a Talukdar of Sandila district Hardoi, U.P. It is commonly grown in northern part of India due to its characteristic flavour and taste. Fruit is large in size, ovate to oval oblique in shape and light yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is medium. It is a late season variety.
  16. Suvernarekha : This is a commercial variety of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. Other synonyms of this variety are Sundari, Lal Sundari and Chinna Suvernarekha. Fruit is medium in size and ovate oblong in shape. Colour of the fruit is light cadmium with a blush of jasper red. Fruit quality is medium and keeping quality is good. It is an early season variety.
  17. Vanraj : It is a highly prized variety of Vadodra district of Gujarat and fetches good returns. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblong in shape and colour is deep chrome with a blush of jasper red on the shoulders. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
  18. Zardalu : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. It derives its name from Zardalu, a dry fruit popular in North West Frontier Province and Sindh in Pakistan owing to similarity in shape. Fruit size is medium, oblong to obliquely oblong and golden yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is medium. It is a mid season variety.
Hybrids
  1. Amrapali : This hybrid is from a cross of Dashehari and Neelum. It is dwarf, regular bearing and late maturing variety. The variety is suitable for high density planting as about 1600 plants may be planted in a hectare. It yields on an average of 16 tonnes/hectare.
  2. Mallika: It is from a cross of Neelum and Dashehari. Its fruit is large in size, oblong elliptical in shape and cadmium yellow in colour. Fruit and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.
  3. Arka Aruna : It is a hybrid between Banganapalli and Alphonso. It is dwarf, regular bearing and precocious. Fruits are large having attractive skin colour with red blush and free from spongy tissue. Suitable for homesteads as well as high density planting.
  4. Arka Puneet : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Banganapalli. It is a regular and prolific bearer. Fruits are medium sized having attractive skin colour with red blush, excellent keeping quality and free from spongy tissue.
  5. Arka Anmol : This hybrid is from a cross of Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand. It is regular bearer and good yielder. Fruits are medium sized having uniform yellow peel colour, excellent keeping quality and free from spongy tissue.
  6. Arka Neelkiran : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Neelum. It is regular bearing late season variety with medium sized fruits having attractive red blush and free from spongy tissue.
  7. Ratna : This hybrid is from a cross of Neelum and Alphonso. Tree moderately vigorous, precocious, fruits are medium sized, attractive in colour and free from spongy tissue.
  8. Sindhu : It is from a cross of Ratna and Alphonso. It is regular bearer, fruits medium sized, free from spongy tissue with high pulp to stone ratio and very thin and small stone.
  9. Ambika: This hybrid is a cross between Amrapali and Janardhan Pasand. It is a regular and prolific bearer. Fruits are medium sized having attractive skin colour with red blush, and late in ripening.
  10. Au Rumani: It is from a cross of Rumani and Mulgoa. It is precocious, heavy and regular bearer with large fruits having yellow cadmium skin colour.
  11. Manjeera : This hybrid is from a cross of Rumani and Neelum. It is dwarf, regular and prolific bearer with firm and fibreless flesh.
  12. PKM 1 : It is from a cross of Chinnasuvernarekha and Neelum. It is regular bearer, heavy yielder and bears fruits in clusters.
Apart from above, some other hybrid varieties are Alfazli, Sundar, Langra, Sabri, Jawahar, Neelphonso, Neeleshan, Neeleshwari and PKM 2.
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